Safety and Fire Engineering

Safety and Fire Engineering

About the Department

Programmes Offered

Programee Intake
B.E30

The Department of Safety and Fire Engineering was established in the year 2020 with an intake of 60 students. The Department of Safety and Fire Engineering was formed with the primary objective of providing world class education in the field of Safety and Fire Engineering, while addressing the problems of today and tomorrow. Right from its inception, the department has been offering excellent infrastructural facilities with various sectors like oil and gas, aerospace, chemical, assembly & manufacturing and construction of safety platforms for aspiring professional students to meet the growing demands of the safety-related concerns in the various industries by proper application of engineering methods for a safe work environment. The department imparts world class training, research and provides state of the safety equipments facilities to the students. The department offers the students with constant motivation and support to bring out their talents in curricular, co-curricular, and extra-curricular perspectives, thus, uplifting them into dynamic professionals. Our faculty and staff are our biggest strength, with industrial experience and exposure, specialized in engineering disciplines such as Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Safety, and Fire Engineering. Through a combination of formal lectures and hands-on experience in well-equipped laboratories and experiential learning through practical training, we ensure a productive learning environment.

Department Stats

Course Duration

04 Years

Semesters

08

Point of Contact

Head of the Department

Placement Coordinator

HOD’s Message

sfg

Dr.K.Boopathy

Professor and Head

Educational Qualification : Ph.D
Teaching Experience         : 18 Years
Industry Experience          :  1 Year

It gives us immense pleasure for Department of Safety and Fire Engineering before you as a premier Institution in the country to provide education in the areas of Safety and Fire Engineering and allied Engineering fields.

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering is an organization that focuses on innovative approaches to Safety and Fire Engineering. Its purpose is to train people in the field of Safety and Fire encourage and integrand approach to the reduction of life and property loss from fire by effective educational and awareness programs. The department pursues this goal by conducting several courses for the public with extensive practical training.

“Success is achieved by those, who dare to dream and work upon their dreams thus explore the possibilities of whole world who remain confident and firm about their decision and keep focusing on their goal. You can be one of them if you adapt above qualities in you”. It is said that if we have solid determination there are lot of ways to achieve our target. Department of Safety and Fire Engineering is introduced as a way for you like that.

It is our privilege to welcome the new batch of students and we are confident that the College will present a pleasant environment with strong educational support for all ambitious students to become successful Safety and Fire Engineers.”

We wish you bright success for your future.

Vision & Mission

Our Vision

“To become a department of excellence in life safety and fire technology using quality education and to create an impact globally in industry, research, entrepreneurship and society”

Our Mission

• To engender engineers with multi-disciplinary passion through continuous perseverance.
• To encourage students for advanced research and development to improve the safety standards of the society.
• To create and sustain a community of learning in which students acquire knowledge in fire safety & security and hazard management.
• To transform the students professionally with due consideration for ethical, human life & property safety issues.

Programs Outcomes & Objective

Program Outcome describe the knowledge, skills and attitudes the students should have at the end of a four year engineering program.

Engineering Graduates will be able to:

  1. Engineering Knowledge: Apply the knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering fundamentals and an engineering specialization to the solution of complex engineering problems.
  2. Problem Analysis: Identify, formulate, review research literature, and analyze complex engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of mathematics, natural sciences, and engineering sciences.
  3. Design / Development of solutions: Design solutions for complex engineering problems and design system components or processes that meet the specified needs with appropriate consideration for the public health and safety, and the cultural, societal, and environmental considerations.
  4. Conduct investigations of complex problems: Use research-based knowledge and research methods, including design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of data, and synthesis of the information to provide valid conclusions.
  5. Modern tool usage: Create, select, and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern engineering and IT tools including prediction and modeling of complex engineering activities with an understanding of the limitations.
  6. The engineer and society: Apply reasoning informed by the contextual knowledge to assess societal, health, safety, legal and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities relevant to the professional engineering practice.
  7. Environment and Sustainability: Understand the impact of the professional engineering solutions to societal and environmental contexts, and demonstrate the knowledge of, and need for sustainable development.
  8. Ethics: Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and responsibilities and norms of the engineering practice.
  9. Individual and team work: Function effectively as an individual and as a member or leader in diverse teams, and in multidisciplinary settings.
  10. Communication: Communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with the engineering community and with society at large, such as, being able to comprehend and write effective reports and design documentation, make effective presentations, and give and receive clear instructions.
  11. Project management and finance: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the engineering management principles and apply these to one’s own work, as a member and leader in a team, to manage projects and in multidisciplinary environments.
  12. Lifelong learning: Recognize the need for and have the preparation and ability to engage in independent and lifelong learning in the broadest context of technological change.

Program Specific Outcomes are statements that describe what the graduates of a specific engineering program should be able to do.

  1. Analyse and assess fire safety of buildings and industries to design specify fire protection systems.
  2. Evaluate hazards and risks in process and manufacturing industries to formulate remedial measures and safety management systems.

List of Laboratory

Safety Engineering Practices Laboratory
Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Laboratory
Safety Elements Drawing Laboratory
Manufacturing Technology Laboratory
Occupational Health and First Aid Laboratory
Thermal Engineering Laboratory
Fire safety Engineering Laboratory
Safety in Construction Laboratory
Chemical Engineering Laboratory
Legal aspects of Safety Laboratory
Environmental Laboratory
Fire Engineering Laboratory

Additional Labs for Advanced Learning

Centre of Excellence for Fire Management
Centre of Excellence for Various industries safety.

Value Added Courses

Industry Tie-ups

S.NO.NAME OF THE INDUSTRYPURPOSE
1VI MICROSYSTEMS PVT.LTD, CHENNAIProject , Placement, Internship, Industrial Visit
2MEZOBLANCA SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS,COIMBATOREValue Added Courses
3SUNSHIV ELECTRONICS , COIMBATOREValue Added Courses
4MEGATRONICS, COIMBATOREProject , Placement, Internship, Industrial Visit
5PREMIER EQUIPMENTS AND TOOLS,COIMBATOREProject , Placement, Internship, Industrial Visit
6PULSAR,CHENNAIStudents Internal Project
7CALIBER EMBEDDED TECHNOLOGY,SALEMProject , Placement, Internship, Industrial Visit
8ABE SEMICONDUCTOR DESIGNSProject , Placement, Internship, Industrial Visit
9NEW MOBILE TECHNOLOGIESWorkshop, Certification course
10POPULAR SYSTEMS,COIMBATOREWorkshop, Certification course
11PROYOGA TECHNOLOGIESStudent’s Internship, Project
12NANDHA INFOTECHStudent’s Internship, Project

Department Activities

National Road Safety Week

January 11-17th– National Road Safety Week

Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Government of India is observing the Road Safety Week from 11th to 17th January 2023, under “Swachhata Pakhwada”, to propagate the cause of safer roads for all. During the Week, various activities is being organised throughout the Country to create awareness among general public and to give an opportunity to all stakeholders to contribute to the cause of road safety. This includes various awareness campaigns related to causes of road accidents and measures to prevent them. Various activities with School/college students, drivers and all other road users have also been planned.

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering organized awareness program on “National Road Safety Week” on 12.01.2023, Venue: Safety and Fire Engineering Laboratory, The program was coordinated by Mr.N.Prithiviraj Assistant Professor /Safety & Fire Engineering.

National Voters Day

January 25th-National Voters Day
Theme-2023 “Nothing Like Voting, I Vote for Sure”

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering organized awareness program on “National Voters Day” on 25.01.2023, Venue: Safety and Fire Engineering Laboratory, The program was coordinated by Dr.K.Boopathy Mr.B.Surender and Mr.S.Saravanakumar Assistant Professor /Safety & Fire Engineering. Participation learned about History of National Voters Day, Significance, Quotes and Slogans.

National Safety Day

March 9th-National Safety Day-2023
Theme -2023“Our Aim-Zero Harm”

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering organized awareness program on “National Safety Day” on 09.03.2023, Venue: Safety and Fire Engineering Laboratory, Program Coordinated by Mr.B.Surender, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering. The main goal of the day is to highlight safety measures and ensure that people are aware of them and follow them in order to avoid workplace accidents. In India, the 4th of March also marks the start of National Safety Week. The theme emphasizes the “Our Aim-Zero Harm”.

International day for “Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action”

April 4th International day for
“Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action”
Theme-2023 “Mine Action Cannot Wait”

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering organized awareness program on “International day for “Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action” on 04.04.2023. Seminar Hall, EEC. The resource person is Mr.M.Raja Saravana Balaji, Assistant Manager- Safety & Health, Rail India Corporation Ltd, Mumbai. Program Coordinated by Mr.S.Saravanakumar Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering. The resource person delivered the Indian mining industry, Mine awareness, various drilling, blasting methods and mine Health, Safety & Environment. He shared his industry experience to the participants in the interactive session. The participants learned about the same and clarified their doubts.

National Fire Service Day

April 14th National Fire Service Day
Theme-2023 “Awareness in Fire Safety for Growth of National Infrastructure (AGNI)”

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering organized awareness program on “National Fire Service Day” on 13.04.2023. Seminar Hall, EEC. The resource person is Mr.K.Natarajan, Deputy General Manager, Schneider Electric India Private Limited, Coimbatore. Program Coordinated by Mr.S.Saravanakumar Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering. The resource person delivered the theme 2023, History of National Fire Service Day, Significance of National Fire Service Week/Day, National Fire Service Week/Day, Campaign’s Goals, Common causes of industrial fires, Basic measures for Fire prevention, Precautions before, during and after the accidents at Work.

World Safety Day/ World Day for Safety and Health at Work

Virtual International Seminar on
“World Day for Safety and Health at Work’’
“A Safe and Healthy Working Environment is a Fundamental Principle and Right at Work”

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering organized virtual awareness program on “World Safety Day/ World Day for Safety and Health at Work” on 28.04.2023. The resource person is Mr.J.JAYAKARTHIC, HSE-Manager, SSHIC-Construction, Dubai. Program Coordinated by Mr.S.Saravanakumar Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering. Participation learned about World Safety Day, Safe and Healthy Working Environment & Ergonomics in working place.

International Fire Fighters Day

May 4th- International Firefighters Day

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering organized awareness program on “International Firefighters Day” on 04.05.2023 in Safety and Fire Engineering Laboratory. Program Coordinated by Mr.K.Gopalakrishnan Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

International Firefighters Day is observed annually on May 4 internationally, and this year is no exception. Fire is a powerful force and has a reputation for being destructive, but there’s so much more to fire than that. It gives energy in the form of heat, and light that is critical for our survival. However, when this element is out of control, it can be disastrous. It’s important to remember though, that fire is only as dangerous as the person who wields it. International Firefighters Day raises awareness of the importance and safe use of fire.

International Firefighters Day Theme 2023- “Honoring the Heroes Who Protect Us”

Overview of Indian Mining Industry- Special Emphasis on Safety & Environmental Management Initiatives for Sustainable Development of JSE Steel

The guest lecture was arranged by the Department of Safety & Fire Engineering, on 23.04.2022, Venue: Seminar Hall. Resource person Mr.Brajeshkumar, Deputy General Manager, M/S JSW Steel Limited, Bellary, Karnataka. He delivered the Indian mining industry, various drilling, blasting methods. The resource person spoke basics and current industrial opportunities to the participants.  He shared his industry experience to the participants in the interactive session. The participants learned about the same and clarified their doubts. The program was coordinated by Mr.S.Saravanakumar,Assistant Professor / Safety & Fire Engineering.

Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment in Construction Industry

The guest lecture was arranged by the Department of Safety & Fire Engineering, on 06.09.2022, Venue: Paavaiyammal Hall, Excel Engineering College. Resource person Mr.M.Thukkaram, EHS advisor in SEPL, SEPL Pvt.Ltd., Chennai. He delivered the various hazards and risk assessment process in construction industry. The resource person spoke basics and current industrial opportunities to the participants. Also he shared his industry experience to the participants in the interactive session. The participants learned about the same and clarified their doubts. The program was coordinated by Mr.S.Saravanakumar, Mr.N.Prithiviraj and Mr.B.Surender, Assistant Professor / Safety & Fire Engineering.

Health Safety and Environment Process in Petroleum Geology, Gas Gathering and transportation

The guest lecture was arranged by the Department of Safety & Fire Engineering, on 16.03.2023, Venue: Safety and Fire Engineering Laboratory. Resource person Mr.S.Jayakumar, Sr.HSE Advisor, Safah/Wadi Latham Oil & Gas, Oman. He delivered the Environmental, Health, and Safety guidelines for offshore oil and gas development, Industry-specific impacts and management and General EHS Guidelines. The EHS Guidelines for Crude Oil and Petroleum Product Terminals. He shared his industry experience to the participants in the interactive session. The participants learned about the same and clarified their doubts. The program was coordinated by Mr.S.Saravanakumar, Assistant Professor / Safety & Fire Engineering.

EHS-Environment Health & Safety and Fire Safety Audits in Manufacturing Industries

The guest lecture was arranged by the Department of Safety & Fire Engineering, on 13.04.2023, Venue: Seminar Hall, EEC. Resource person Mr.K.Natarajan, Deputy General Manager, Schneider Electric India Private Limited, Coimbatore, He  delivered the   EHS- Process, Workplace Injuries, Effect of unsafe Act, National Building code 2016, Fire & Life Safety, Factories Act, ISO45001:2018, TNPCOB (Tamilnadu Pollution Control Board) Norms, Safety Audits in Working place. Also he shared his industry experience to the participants in the interactive session. The participants learned about the same and clarified their doubts. The program was coordinated by Mr.S.Saravanakumar, Assistant Professor / Safety & Fire Engineering.

Webinar on “Job Opportunities for Safety Engineers’’

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering has organized the webinar on  “Job Opportunities for Safety Engineers’’ on 18.09.2021 Recourse person Mr.B.Sudarshan, Head Placement and  business development, Skill council for mining sector, Bangalore. He delivered the Job Opportunities for Safety Engineers. The resource person spoke basics and current industrial opportunities to the participants. Also he shared his industry experience to the participants in the interactive session. The participants learned about the same and clarified their doubts.  Program coordinated by Mr.S.Saravanakumar, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

Webinar on “Mines Operation, Drilling, Blasting and Fire Engineering”

Excel Engineering College (Autonomous), Department of Safety and Fire Engineering has organized the webinar on “Mines Operation, Drilling, Blasting and Fire Engineering” on 25.09.2021 through online platform (http://meet .google.com/qfv-xssg-njk). Recourse Person Mr.Brajeshkumar, JSW Steels Pvt Ltd, Karnataka. He delivered the various mines operation, mining process, drilling methods, blasting parameters and safety implementation in mining sector.   Program coordinated by Mr.S.Saravanakumar, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

Webinar on “Airport Rescue and Fire Fighting Services an Overview”

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering, organized a webinar on “Airport Rescue and Fire Fighting Services an Overview” on 09.10.2021. Resource person Mr.Abhijith Sunil, Junior Executive (FS), Airports Authority of India, New Delhi, Ernakulam, Kerala. He delivered the airport rescue and fire fighting services. The resource person spoke basics and current industrial opportunities to the participants. Also he shared his industry experience to the participants in the interactive session. The participants learned about the same and clarified their doubts.  Program coordinated by Mr.Anu Alex, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

Dimensional Analysis

Excel Engineering College (Autonomous), Department of Safety and Fire Engineering, Safety Professionals Association of India (SPAI) has organized the seminar on “Dimensional Analysis” on 23.10.2021. In this seminar students learned about dimensional parameters, Deriver units, solved problem in Rayleigh method and Buckingham’s Π-theorem. Seminar handled by Mr.S.Saravanakumar, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

Webinar on “Scope of occupational Health & Safety and Career Planning”

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering has organized the webinar on “Scope of occupational Health & Safety and Career Planning” on 13.11.2021 through online platform (http://meet .google.com/bkw-jvad-ksq). In this program participants learned about various scope of occupational health, Job opportunities in safety engineers and career planning. Program coordinated by Mr.N.Prithiviraj, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

Metal Casting Process & Sheet Metal Fabrication

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering organized the seminar on “Metal Casting Process & Sheet Metal Fabrication” on 22.01.2022. Google meet: https://meet.google.com/kox-dqbc-yuf. In this program participant’s learned about metal casting process, Safety in Casting Industry, PPE and Sheet metal tools. Seminar handled by Mr.S.Saravanakumar, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

Safety Management System (SMS)

Excel Engineering College (Autonomous), Department of Safety and Fire Engineering, Safety Professionals Association of India (SPAI) has organized the hands on training “Safety Management System (SMS)” on 29.01.2022. Google meet: https://meet.google.com/fvy-ogcf-uww. Seminar handled by Mr.N.Prithiviraj, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

Career Prospects, Scope & Demand for Safety Engineers

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering, organized the program on “Career Prospects, Scope & Demand for Safety Engineers” on 12.03.2022 at Safety & Fire Engineering Laboratory. Conducted by Dr.K.Boopathy Associated Professor, Department of Safety &Fire Engineering.

World Safety Day

Excel Engineering College (Autonomous), Department of Safety and Fire Engineering, Safety Professionals Association of India (SPAI) has organized the Seminar on “World Safety Day” on 28.04.2022 at Safety & Fire Engineering Laboratory. Program coordinated by Mr.N.Prithiviraj, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

Enlightenment of Emergency and First Aid Procedure in Inevitable Situation

Seminar on “Enlightenment of Emergency and First Aid Procedure in Inevitable Situation”. Conducted by Department of Safety and Fire Engineering on  29.10.2022. In this, the event kick started by Mr.B.Surender, AP/SFE and talks about “First Aid Procedure in inevitable situation”.

The Seminar is to impart deep knowledge about First Aid Treatment in the emergency situation, so that

(1) Students have Knowledge about the first-aid sector in emergency situations.

(2) Get knowledge in CPR treatment helps in practical life.

(3) Understand the concept of disaster management / multiple casualties.

(4) Learn about different types of transportation method of injured person.

(IPR)-Intellectual Property Rights

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering organized a seminar on “Intellectual Property Rights” 12.01.2023, Resource Person Mr.Thariq Lathif, EHS advisor, Kerry Group Plc Sohar, Oman. He delivered the integral role supporting multiple projects within D&IS (Digital and Integrated Services) such as renewals and enhancement schemes which vary in size from updating and improving life expired signaling equipment to installing and commissioning new equipment and current industrial opportunities to the participants. Also he shared his industry experience to the participants in the interactive session. The participants learned about the same and clarified their doubts.  Program coordinated by Mr.S.Saravanakumar, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

Latest Technologies in Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment

Excel Engineering College (Autonomous), Department of Safety and Fire Engineering, Safety Professionals Association of India (SPAI) has organized the seminar on “Latest Technologies in Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment” on 04.03.2023. Venue: Seminar Hall. Program Conducted by Mr.K.Gopalakrishnan, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering. Organizer explained about the various latest technologies in hazard Identification and Risk assessment likes harmful dusts, Energy sources, Flying debris and isolation.

Noise Pollution in Manufacturing Industries

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering organized the seminar on “Noise Pollution in Manufacturing Industries” on 01.04.2023. Venue: Fire Safety Engineering Laboratory. Program conducted by Mr.K.Gopalakrishnan, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering. Organizer explained about the latest technologies in noise measurement, Noise Effects, Awareness of noise pollution in manufacturing industries and control measures.

Applications of Safety and Fire Equipments

Excel Engineering College (Autonomous), Department of Safety and Fire Engineering, Safety Professionals Association of India (SPAI) has organized the hands on training “Fire Extinguisher Training and PPE Kit Study” on 18.12.2021. Venue: Safety & Fire Engineering Laboratory. Training Conducted by Mr.S.Saravanakumar, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

Hands on Training Program on–Gas Analyzer and Noise Level Meter

Excel Engineering College (Autonomous), Department of Safety and Fire Engineering, Safety Professionals Association of India (SPAI) has organized the Hands on training Program on–  “Gas Analyzer and Noise Level Meter” on 09.04.2022. Venue: Safety & Fire Engineering Laboratory. Conducted by Mr.S.Saravanakumar, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

PPE Kit, Exhaust Gas Analyzer and Lock Out/Tag Out

The workshop was arranged by the Department of Safety & Fire Engineering, on 12.11.2022, Venue: Safety and Fire Engineering Laboratory.

This workshop is to impart deep knowledge about ISO-PPE Kit & LOTO usages in the working areas, so that

(1) Students have Knowledge about the various PPE kit usages.

(2) Get knowledge in exhaust gas analyzer. Automotive Exhaust Gas Analyzers are primarily used to diagnose engine emission problems and thereby maximize engine performance.

(3) Understand the concept of LOTO. The purpose of this training is to provide a system for the lockout/tagout (LOTO) of energy isolating devices and there by protect employees from potentially hazardous energy. Wherever possible, energy isolating devices should be locked out.

The program coordinated by Mr.S.Saravanakumar, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

Fire Extinguisher Operation

The workshop was arranged by the Department of Safety & Fire Engineering, on 04.02.2023, Venue: Safety and Fire Engineering Laboratory. In this workshop participants learned about Fire Triangle, Classification of Fires, Fire Extinguisher Classification, Safety Procedure and Operating a Fire Extinguisher. The program coordinated by Mr.S.Saravanakumar, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

National Level Workshop on “Current working Environment in MNCs, Ergonomics; Contractors Health, Safety and Environment Management System”

The workshop was arranged by the Department of Safety & Fire Engineering, on 31.03.2023, Venue: Seminar Hall, EEC. Resource persons: (1) Mr.Manoj Thomas, Sustainability Expert, Domain Consultant- Sustainability Banking,Tata Consultancy Services, Japan. (2) Mr.K.Jithesh, ESHS Expert,(Environmental Sustainability, Health and Safety), Tata Consultancy Services, Hyderabad and (3) Mr.N.Unnikrishnan, ESHS Expert,(Environmental Sustainability, Health and Safety), Tata Consultancy Services, Kerala

This Workshop is to practices deep conceptual understanding of Environmental in MNCs. It would pave a gateway to researchers and fresher’s of the Safety knowledge and CSM in smart manufacturing. To address the challenges in Environment Management System. Participation learned about MNCs working conditions, Contractors Safety Management Systems, Ergonomics in working place.

Drawing competition on Safety symbols

The program was arranged by the Department of Safety & Fire Engineering (18.12.2021) under the guidance of Dr.K.Bommanna Raja, Principal preside over the function, Dr.K.Boopathy, Associate Professor/Safety & Fire Engineering welcome the gathering and along with all the faculties and students of Safety & Fire Engineering department. The program was coordinated by Mr.Anu Alex Assistant Professor, /Safety & Fire Engineering, He given ideas related to drawing safety symbols. The participants learned drawing safety symbols and clarified their doubts.

Drawing Competition on Industrial Safety Slogans

The program was arranged by the Department of Safety & Fire Engineering on 12.02.2022.  The program was coordinated welcome the gathering and along with all the faculties and students of Safety & Fire Engineering department. The program was coordinated by Mr. Anu Alex, Assistant Professor /Safety & Fire Engineering. He given ideas related to Industrial Safety Slogans. The participants learned drawing Industrial Safety Slogans and clarified their doubts.

Mind Map for Assortment of Industrial Safety Process

Excel Engineering College (Autonomous), Department of Safety and Fire Engineering, Safety Professionals Association of India (SPAI) has organized the program on  “Mind Map for Assortment of Industrial Safety Process”  on 12.03.2022 at 10 am to 12.30 pm, venue: Safety & Fire Engineering Laboratory. Conducted by Mrs.S.Selvi Assistant Professor, Department of Safety &Fire Engineering.

Alumni Engagement Program

Alumni Engagement Program on 5th January 2023 starts at 02.30 pm with welcome address by Dr.N,Natarajan Head of the Department, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering. Alumni introduction by Dr.K.Boopathy Associate professor Department of Safety and Fire Engineering. Program organizer Mr.S.Saravanakumar Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering. In this program kick started by Mr.Christy Chacko / Food Safety Executive / Winsty all one solutions PVT Ltd, Thiruvalla, Kerala. He talks about various food safety process.

This program is to impart deep knowledge about food safety. He talks about job responsibilities of food safety officer, Powers of Food Safety Officer, duty of the Food Safety Officer and Job Opportunity. Job responsibilities of food safety officer, The duty of the Food Safety Officer and Job Opportunity.

Design Contest on Creative Safety Symbols

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering, has organized the program on “Design Contest on Creative Safety Symbols” on 21.01.2023. The Main theme of the contest was briefed by Mr.N.Prithiviraj Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering. He create new and creative safety symbols in following aspects Industry Safety Symbols, Explosive, Oxidizing, Corrosive and Toxic. Students were actively participated the contest and design new creative symbols.

Sakthi Auto Component Limited

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering organized  industrial visit to Sakthi Auto Component Limited on 20.10.2022. Sakthi Auto Component Limited is one among the MULTI FACETED Sakthi Group situated at Mukasi Pallagoundenpalayam, Erode District, Tamilnadu State, India, established in the year 1983. Presently the Sakthi Auto has a capacity to produce 24000 Tonnes / annum of S.G.IRON Castings, on a 100 Acre Land with all amenities for Workmen and Officers like Housing, Transport etc. Sakthi Auto is one of the major producers of S.G.Iron Castings, meeting the needs of most of the Automotive and other general Engineering Industries.

R&D Lab is attached to our Sakthi Auto with modern computerised equipments like Direct Reading Spectrometer, Carbon Sulphur determination, Universal Testing Machine, Scanning Electron Microscope, Industrial X-RAY Scanner etc.

Training Program on “ELECTRICAL SAFETY”

NATIONAL SKILL TRAINING INSTITUTE, BENGALURU.

Day-1/Session:1- 06.02.2023

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering organized one week training program on Electrical Safety 06.02.2023-Monday. Time: 9.30 am to 1.00 pm, National Skill Training Institute, Bengaluru. Regional Director: Shri.B.N.Sridhar NSTI, Bengaluru. Resource Person: Mr.A.S.Palani, Trg Officer, He deliver about electrical safety and Facts you should know about Electric Shocks. The program coordinated by Mr.S.Saravanakumar, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

Training Program on “ELECTRICAL SAFETY”

Training Program on “ELECTRICAL SAFETY

NATIONAL SKILL TRAINING INSTITUTE, BENGALURU.

Day-1/Session:2- 06.02.2023

Training program on Electrical Safety 06.02.2023-Monday Time: 2 pm to 5.00 pm, National Skill Training Institute, Bengaluru. Resource Person: Dr.Chandrashekar, Consultan- Industrial Health. He given training in first aid, steps for emergency situations, First aid bandage, First aid for heatstroke, First aid for heart attack, First aid kit for babies, First aid kit list and a standard first aid kit should include.

Training Program on “ELECTRICAL SAFETY”

NATIONAL SKILL TRAINING INSTITUTE, BENGALURU.

Day-2/Session:3- 07.02.2023

Training program on Electrical Safety 07.02.2023-Tuedsay, Time: 9.30 am to 1.00 pm, National Skill Training Institute, Bengaluru. Resource Person: Mr.G.Sivaraj. He deliver Safety procedure in electrical distribution, Components of a power system, Power plant, Transformer, Transmission Line, Substation, Distribution Line Distribution Transformer, Causes of Hazards, Preliminary Energy Audit Methodology and Detailed Energy Audit Methodology.

Training Program on “ELECTRICAL SAFETY”

NATIONAL SKILL TRAINING INSTITUTE, BENGALURU.

Day-2/Session:4- 07.02.2023

Training program on Electrical Safety 07.02.2023-Tuedsay, Time: 2.00 pm to 5.00 pm, National Skill Training Institute, Bengaluru. Resource Person: Mr.G.Sivaraj. He delivers emergency and disaster management related to electrical safety, accident prevention and attitude/ behavior based safety.

Training Program on “ELECTRICAL SAFETY”

NATIONAL SKILL TRAINING INSTITUTE, BENGALURU.

Day-3/Session:5- 08.02.2023

Training program on Electrical Safety 08.02.2023-Wednesday, Time: 9.30 am to 1.00 pm, National Skill Training Institute, Bengaluru. Resource Person: Mr.Nagaraju, Retd Safety Officer.  He deliver safe working practices in electrical substation, Electrical Hazards in Substations, Safety Requirements at Electrical Substations and safety precautions against high voltages.

Training Program on “ELECTRICAL SAFETY”

NATIONAL SKILL TRAINING INSTITUTE, BENGALURU.

Day-3/Session:6- 08.02.2023

Training program on Electrical Safety 08.02.2023-Wednesday, Time: 2.00 pm to 5.00 pm, National Skill Training Institute, Bengaluru. Resource Person: Mr.Nagaraju, Retd Safety Officer.  He deliver safe methods of handling batteries and capacitor banks. 6 safety precautions for handling batteries, precautions capacitors, caution and electrical handling.

Training Program on “ELECTRICAL SAFETY”

NATIONAL SKILL TRAINING INSTITUTE, BENGALURU.

Day-4/Session:7- 09.02.2023

Training program on Electrical Safety 09.02.2023-Thursday, Time: 9.30 am to 1.00 pm, National Skill Training Institute, Bengaluru. Resource Person: Mr.Seshadri, Sr Enginee, Ex L&T, Bengalore. He delivers electrical safety on operation & maintenance of electrical equipment like CKT breaker etc. Indian Electricity Rules, 1956.

Training Program on “ELECTRICAL SAFETY”

NATIONAL SKILL TRAINING INSTITUTE, BENGALURU.

Day-4/Session:7- 09.02.2023

Training program on Electrical Safety 09.02.2023-Thursday, Time: 2.00 pm to 5.00 pm, National Skill Training Institute, Bengaluru. Resource Person: Mr.A.S.Palani, Trg Officer. He delivers Electrical Maintenance, MCB, MCCB,ELCB, RCCB and MCB Rating,

Training Program on “ELECTRICAL SAFETY”

NATIONAL SKILL TRAINING INSTITUTE, BENGALURU.

Day-5/Session:9- 10.02.2023

Training program on Electrical Safety 10.02.2023-Friday, Time: 9.30 am to 1.00 pm, National Skill Training Institute, Bengaluru. Resource Person: Mr.A.S.Palani, Trg Officer. He delivers Do’s & Don’t’s in Electrical Maintenance and Electrical Safety Dos and Don’ts.

Training Program on “ELECTRICAL SAFETY”

NATIONAL SKILL TRAINING INSTITUTE, BENGALURU.

Day-5/Session:10- 10.02.2023

Training program on Electrical Safety 10.02.2023-Friday, Time: 2.00 pm to 5.00 pm, National Skill Training Institute, Bengaluru. Resource Person: Mr.A.S.Palani, Trg Officer. He delivers Lockout and Tagout, Types of Hazardous Energy Lockout/Tagout Protects Against, Keys to an OSHA-Compliant Lockout/Tagout Program and Lockout Sequence.

Private Individual at District level Training at Erode Fire Station (13.3.2023 to 17.03.2023)

  The training program was arranged by the Department of Safety and Fire Engineering under the guidance of Dr.K.Bommanna Raja Principal, Dr.N.Natarajan HOD/ Safety & Fire Engineering, The training program was coordinated by Mr.B.Surender Assistant Professor /Safety and Fire Engineering. Trainee Officers: Mr.Pulugandi, District Officer, Erode, Mr.Murugesan, Assistant District Officer, Mr.Navaneedran, Station Fire Safety Officer and Mr.Durai, Station Fire Safety Officer, Erode. A student learns about Learned about different types of Fire Extinguisher. Understand the Lifting Techniques. Practices of First Aid Procedure. Learned about different types of Transportation Vehicles. Understand about water discharge with their operational methods.

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Jayanti Celebration

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering, has celebrated the “Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Jayanti Celebration” on 23.01.2023 .  The program was coordinated by Mr.N.Prithiviraj, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering. The Program was coordinated by Mr.N.Prithiviraj, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

International Anti Corruption Day & Human Rights Day

Department of Safety and Fire Engineering, Safety Professionals Association of India (SPAI) has organized the program on “International Anti Corruption Day (09.12.2022) and Human Rights Day (10.12.2022)” at Safety and Fire Engineering Laboratory. Participants read the Preamble of International Anti Corruption Day and Human Rights Day. The Program was coordinated by Mr.N.Prithiviraj, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

Safety Awareness Rally On World Safety Day

Excel Engineering College (Autonomous), Department of Safety and Fire Engineering, Safety Professionals Association of India (SPAI) has organized the safety awareness rally on “World Safety Day” on 28.04.2022 at 10 am venue: Excel Campus. The Program was coordinated by Mr.N.Prithiviraj, Assistant Professor, Department of Safety and Fire Engineering.

Seminar on “Accelerators- Opportunities for students & Faculties – Early Stage Entrepreneurs”

The program was arranged by the Entrepreneurship Development Cell  under the guidance of Dr.K.Bommanna Raja, Principal, Dr.P.Karunakaran Overasll IIC Coordinator and Dr.E.R.Sivakumar EDC Coordinator preside over the function. Dr.S.P.Venkatesan HOD/ Aeronautical Engineering and Dr.N.Natarajan HOD/ Mechanical & Safety & Fire Engineering welcome the gathering and along with all the faculties and students. The program was coordinated by Mr.S.Prabhu Assistant Professor /Aeronautical Engineering, Mr.K.Arulkumar Assistant Professor/ Mechanical Engineering and Mr.B.Surender Assistant Professor Safety & Fire Engineering. Chief Guest Mr.D.Deepak, Manager, Product Engineering, Amphicore Technologies Pvt. Limited, Coimabatore. He delivered about services they offer for young entrepreneurs like mentoring, co-working space, legal accounting, and access labs to company registration. The resource person spoke the successful start-ups in which they helped. Also he shared his industry experience to the participants, achievements and awards in the interactive session. The participants learned about the same and clarified their doubts.

Sports Activity

 Department of Safety & Fire Engineering arranged the sports activity to second and third year students on 21.01.2023 at Excel Engineering College Ground. The sport was coordinated by Mr.S.Saravanakumar Assistant Professor /Safety & Fire Engineering. Students actively involved the Kabaddi ,Volleyball and Kho kho.

Participation

Faculty Participation

 

 

S.No.

 

NAME OF THE FACULTY

 

TITLE

 

FDP/SEMINAR/ WORKSHOP/ INTERNSHIP/ CONFERENCE

 

 

NAME OF THE INSTITUTION

 

DURATION

1Mr.S.SaravanakumarResearch Prospects in Mechanical & Allied EngineeringFDPDr.N.G.P Institute of Technology, Coimbatore.28.04.2021 to 30.04.2021
2Mr.S.SaravanakumarPlanning of Surface Mining ProjectsFDPATAL, National Institute of Technology, Karnataka Surathkal.23.08.2021 to 27.08.2021
3Mr.S.SaravanakumarRoad Safety and Management of Fire Fighting Strategies for Smart CitiesFDPIPS Academy Institute of Engineering and Science, Indore, Madhya Pradesh.

 

06.09.2021 to 10.09.2021
4Mr.S.SaravanakumarCARBON DIOXIDE AS A WORKING FLUID FOR FUTURE ENERGY REQUIREMENTSFDPATAL, NIT Andhra Pradesh.25.10.2021 to 29.10.2021
5Mr.S.SaravanakumarAdvanced Industrial AutomationFDPATAL, Guru Gobind Singh Polytechnic, Nashik.06.12.2021 to 10.012.2021
6Mr.S.SaravanakumarMining & Mineral Processing: Advances in Technology & Sustainable ChallengesFDPATAL, C V Raman Global University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha.14.12.2021 to 18.12.2021
7Mr.S.SaravanakumarAdditive manufacturing -3D PrintingFDPThakur Polytechnic, Mumbai, Maharastra.29.12.2021 to 04.01.2022
8Mr.S.SaravanakumarEffective  Learning and Teaching Methods for Business PracticesFDPKalasalingam Business school19.05.2020 to 25.05.2020
9Dr.K.BoopathyNIRFFDPNehru Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore.06.09.2021  to 07.09.2021
10Mr.S.SaravanakumarFuturistic Research in Mechanical EngineeringFDPSRM Institute of Science and Technology, Ramapuram Campus, Chennai.08.08.2022  to 13.08.2022
11Mr.S.SaravanakumarThermal Science and Materials EngineeringFDPSrinivasa Ramanujan Institute of Technology, Ananthapuramu.07.11.2022  to  11.11.2022
12Dr.K.BoopathyMSME Idea Hackathon 2.0Expert Committee MemberJKKN College of Engineering and Technology, Komarapalayam.09.12.2022
13Mr.S.SaravanakumarIntelligent Solutions to Renewable Energy System and High Voltage EngineeringFDPNational Institutes of Technology (NIT), Warangal.19.12.2022  to  23.12.2022
14Mr.S.SaravanakumarRecent Advancement in Science & EngineeringFDPRegional College for Education Research and Technology, Jaipur.26.12.2022  to 30.12.2022
15Mr.S.SaravanakumarElectrical SafetyINTERNSHIPNational Skill Training Institute (NSTI), Bangalore.06.02.2023  to  10.02.2023
16Mr.B.SurenderFire Fighting TrainingINTERNSHIPTamilnadu Fire -Services Department Erode.13.03.2023  to  27.03.2023
17Dr.K.BoopathyFire Fighting TrainingINTERNSHIPTamilnadu Fire -Services Department Erode.13.03.2023  to  27.03.2023
18Mr.N.PrithivirajFire Fighting TrainingINTERNSHIPTamilnadu Fire -Services Department Erode.13.03.2023 to 27.03.2023
19Mr.K.GopalakrishnanFire Fighting TrainingINTERNSHIPTamilnadu Fire -Services Department Erode.13.03.2023 to 27.03.2023
20Mr.N.PrithivirajSafety in ConstructionFDPNPTEL, IIT Madras.Jan – March 2023
21Dr.K.BoopathyDevelopment of 360 Degree Fire Protection SystemCONFERENCELoyola Institute of Technology, Chennai.03.05.2023
22Mr.S.SaravanakumarIdeation, Recent Advantances in Materials Science and its ApplicationsFDPRajalakshmi Institute of Technology, Chennai.27.04.2023  to  04.05.2023
23Mr.S.SaravanakumarAutomobile Transmission Systems & Electric -Hybrid VehiclesFDPKongu College of Engineering and Technology(Autonomous), Trichy.03.05.2023 to  04.05.2023
24Dr.K.BoopathyAutomobile Transmission Systems & Electric -Hybrid VehiclesFDPKongu College of Engineering and Technology(Autonomous), Trichy.03.05.2023 to  04.05.2023
25Mr.K.GopalakrishnanAutomobile Transmission Systems & Electric -Hybrid VehiclesFDPKongu College of Engineering and Technology(Autonomous), Trichy.03.05.2023 to  04.05.2023
26Mr.S.SaravanakumarPost- Harvest TechnologiesFDPTamilnadu State Council for Science and Technology(TNSCST)15.05.2023 to  09.06.2023
27Mr.S.SaravanakumarRecent Trends in Immersive TechnologyFDPTamil Nadu State Government05-06-2023 to

17-06-2023

Journal Publication

S.NOFACULTY NAMETITLE OF THE PAPERNAME OF THE JOURNALMONTH AND YEAR OF PUBLICATIONISSN NO
1Dr.K.BoopathyEnhancement approach for the Sugarcane Bark Peeling SystemMaterials Today: ProceedingsJanuary-20212214-7853
2Mr.S.SaravanakumarSlope Stability Analysis in Open Cast MinesIJESCJune 2021ISSN 2321 3361 © 2021 IJESC
3Mr.B.SurenderEmergency Response Plan for Transporting Active Pharmaceutical IngredientsIARJSETMay 2022ISSN (O) 2393-8021, ISSN (P) 2394-1588
4Mr.S.SaravanakumarEnvironment Health & Safety Plan Of A Transmission Line In Manufacturing IndustryIARJSETMay 2022ISSN (O) 2393-8021, ISSN (P) 2394-1588
5Mr.B.SurenderAnalysis of Risks and Control Measures in the use of Tower Cranes and Mobile Cranes in High Rise Building ConstructionIARJSETMay 2022ISSN (O) 2393
6Mr.B.SurenderSafe Practice Guidelines and Risk Assessment for Raft and PedestalIARJSETMay 2022ISSN (O) 2393-8021, ISSN (P) 2394-1588
7Mr.S.SaravanakumarSafety and Health in Construction of Commercial BuildingIARJSETMay 2022ISSN (O) 2393-8021, ISSN (P) 2394-1588
8Mr.B.SurenderHazard Identification and Risk Assesment for Equipment Erection & Dismantling in Construction SiteIARJSETMay 2022ISSN (O) 2393-8021, ISSN (P) 2394-1588
9Mr.S.SaravanakumarEmergency Response Plan for Transporting Active Pharmaceutical IngredientsIARJSETMay 2022ISSN (O) 2393-8021, ISSN (P) 2394-1588
10Mr.B.SurenderAnalysis of Implementation of Safety Measures in Rubber Recycling Industry and Corrective Measures for ImprovementIARJSETMay 2022ISSN (O) 2393-8021, ISSN (P) 2394-1588
11Mr.S.SaravanakumarImproving Safety Management System by Implementing Effective Safety System in Construction SiteIARJSETMay 2022ISSN (O) 2393-8021, ISSN (P) 2394-1588
12Dr.K.BoopathyJob Safety Analysis on Manufacturing Process of House WiresIJETMSAug-Sept – 20222581-4621
13Mr.N.PrithivirajJob Safety Analysis on Manufacturing Process o f House WiresIJETMSAug-Sept – 20222581-4621
14Mr.N.PrithivirajNumerical Investigation of Convective Heat Transfer on Helical Tube With Twisted Tape InsertJournal for Basic SciencesMarch 20231006-8341

Faculty – NPTEL

Faculty NameCourseGradePhoto  Certificate
Mr.K.GopalakrishnanComputer integrated ManufacturingElite
Mr.N.PrithivirajSafety in ConstructionCompleted

Internship

S.NoRoll.NoReg.NoName of the StudentName of Industry  with AddressNo. of Days
120SF001730920115001AARIF SULTHANRoots Industries India Ltd, CRPF Rd, Coimbatore-641017.15 Days
220SF002730920115002AKASH KRISHNANZain Engineers & Technologies Consultants Pvt Ltd, Karuvarakund PO, Malapuram-676523.15 Days
320SF003730920115003BALAKRISHNA S TM/S Texport industries Pvt. Ltd,  Yeswanthpur Industrial Suburb Bangalore-56002210 Days
420SF004730920115004BEN JACOB FRANCISZain Engineers & Technologies Consultants Pvt Ltd, Karuvarakund PO, Malapuram-67652315 Days
520SF005730920115005DHARMENDRA KUMAR SSakthi Auto Component Ltd, Vijayamangalam, Tirupur-64101835 Days
RCC Developers Ltd, Davanagre, Karnataka- 577002.16 Days
620SF006730920115006FAHEEM E KZain Engineers & Technologies Consultants Pvt Ltd, Karuvarakund PO, Malapuram-676523.15 Days
720SF007730920115007FAZALU RAHMAN KM/S RG REFAINERS &OIL MILLs, Ayikkarapadi. Malapuram-673637.10 Days
820SF008730920115008JIBIN MATHEWZain Engineers & Technologies Consultants Pvt Ltd, Karuvarakund PO, Malapuram-676523.15 Days
920SF009730920115009JOSE ANTONY ADARSHZain Engineers & Technologies Consultants Pvt Ltd, Karuvarakund PO, Malapuram-676523.15 Days
1020SF010730920115010JOTHEESWARAN AJaypee Safety Systems Pvt. Ltd, Periyanaickenpalayam,  Coimbatore-64102030 Days
1120SF011730920115011MUHAMMED ASHMAL PZain Engineers & Technologies Consultants Pvt Ltd, Karuvarakund PO, Malapuram-676523.15 Days
1220SF012730920115012RAJESH RSri Balaji Textiles, Kathrampatti Po, Erode-63810715 Days
1320SF013730920115013SABESH TL.G Balakrishnan & Bros Ltd, Ganapathy.Coimbatore-64100630 Days
1420SF014730920115014SAFARIN SZain Engineers & Technologies Consultants Pvt Ltd, Karuvarakund PO, Malapuram-676523.15 Days
1520SF015730920115015SUGUMAR ESri Balaji Textiles, Kathrampatti Po, Erode-63810715 Days
1620SF016730920115016SURYA PRAKASH RSakthi Auto Component Ltd, Vijayamangalam, Tirupur-64101830 Days
1720SF017730920115017VIMAL ADHITHAN JRoots Industries India Ltd, CRPF Rd, Coimbatore-641017.15 Days
1821LSF018730920115301ABHIMANYU VRoots Industries India Ltd, CRPF Rd, Coimbatore-641017.15 Days
1921LSF019730920115302MOHAN KUMAR PBrahmastra Aerospace Systems, Chennai.15 Days
2021LSF021730920115304RAJKUMAR RSakthi Auto Component Ltd, Vijayamangalam, Tirupur-641018.30 Days
2122LSF018730921115302SOORIYA PRASATH M PTamilnadu Newsprint and Papers Limited, Manapparai, Trichy- 621306.30 Days

NPTEL

S.No.Roll.NoReg.NoName of the StudentTitleDurationGradePhoto
120SF011730920115011MUHAMMED ASHMAL PSafety in Construction8 WeeksCompleted
220SF007730920115007FAZALU RAHMAN KSafety in Construction8 WeeksCompleted
320SF008730920115008JIBIN MATHEWSafety in Construction8 WeeksCompleted
420SF015730920115015SUGUMAR ESafety in Construction8 WeeksCompleted
520SF005730920115005DHARMENDRA KUMAR SSafety in Construction8 WeeksCompleted
620SF006730920115006FAHEEM E KSafety in Construction8 WeeksCompleted
720SF012730920115012RAJESH RSafety in Construction8 WeeksCompleted
820SF003730920115003BALAKRISHNA S TSafety in Construction8 WeeksCompleted
921SF005730921115005GIRITHARAN KSafety in Construction8 WeeksCompleted
1021SF012730921115011NANDHA GSafety in Construction8 WeeksCompleted

Value Added Course

Safety in Engineering Industry

Department of Safety & Fire Engineering organized a value added course in Safety in Engineering Industry 04.02.203 to 10.02.2023 in Safety and Fire Engineering Laboratory and Manufacturing Technology Laboratory. Course Duration: 30 Hours. The course was coordinated by Mr.K.Gopalakrishnan, and Mr.N.Prithiviraj Assistant Professor / Safety & Fire Engineering. The syllabus of the Value Added Course is Safety in Metal Working Machinery, Safety in Wood Working Industry, Principles of Machine Guarding, Safety in Welding, Safety in Gas Cutting, Practical Session & Feedback. Outcome of the course is to outline the safety rules, standards and codes in various mechanical engineering processes. To explain various machine guarding systems for lathe, drilling, boring and milling machines. To develop safe procedures for welding, gas cutting, storage and handling of gas cylinders. To specify the, safety and welfare measures to be taken during finishing, Inspection and testing of various mechanical processes.